by keita on 2012年7月20日


こんにちは、Zen Startupの細江です。最終回の今回はライティングセクションの勉強法を紹介します。


TOEFLのライティングはIntegrated Task と Independent Task の2つのTaskで構成されています。Taskごとに内容が異なるので、それぞれのTaskについて対策方法を紹介します。

Integrated Task

Integrated Taskはまず3分で短めの文章を読み、次にそれに関するレクチャーを聞きます。その後20分間でそれらをまとめて150~225ワード程度で書くという内容です。例題を見てみましょう。



Critics say that current voting systems used in the United States are inefficient and often lead to the inaccurate counting of votes. Miscounts can be especially damaging if an election is closely contested. Those critics would like the traditional systems to be replaced with far more efficient and trustworthy computerized voting systems.


In traditional voting, one major source of inaccuracy is that people accidentally vote for the wrong candidate. Voters usually have to find the name of their candidate on a large sheet of paper containing many names—the ballot—and make a small mark next to that name. People with poor eyesight can easily mark the wrong name. The computerized voting machines have an easy-to-use touch-screen technology:  to cast a vote, a voter needs only to touch the candidate’s name on the screen to record a vote for that candidate; voters can even have the computer magnify the name for easier viewing.


Another major problem with old voting systems is that they rely heavily on people to count the votes. Officials must often count up the votes one by one, going through every ballot and recording the vote. Since they have to deal with thousands of ballots, it is almost inevitable that they will make mistakes. If an error is detected, a long and expensive recount has to take place. In contrast, computerized systems remove the possibility of human error, since all the vote counting is done quickly and automatically by the computers.


Finally some people say it is too risky to implement complicated voting technology nationwide. But without giving it a thought, governments and individuals alike trust other complex computer technology every day to be perfectly accurate in banking transactions as well as in the communication of highly sensitive information.



(教授) While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better. Computerized voting may seem easy for people who are used to computers. But what about people who aren’t? People who can’t afford computers, people who don’t use them on a regular basis—these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines. These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology. Furthermore, it’s true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are programmed by humans, so “human error” can show up in mistakes in their programs.  And the errors caused by these defective programs may be far more serious. The worst human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result in thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the record. And in many voting systems, there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in the case of a suspected error is impossible! As for our trust of computer technology for banking and communications, remember one thing: these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first introduced. They had to be improved on and improved on until they got as reliable as they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States and not much more than twice a year in many local areas. This is hardly sufficient for us to develop confidence that computerized voting can be fully trusted.



Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they oppose specific points made in the reading passage.


Integrated Taskでは自分の意見を書くのではなく、基本的にはレクチャーの内容をまとめることが求められます。そのため以下のような対策が有効です。


1. テンプレート

Integrated Taskでは多くの場合リーディングで3つのポイントが示され、それら3つのポイントに対して教授がレクチャーの中で反論をしていくという構成です。わかりやすく表す以下のようになります。



P1 主張

P2 理由その1

P3 理由その2

P4 理由その3



P1 反論

P2 理由その1への反論理由

P3 理由その2への反論理由

P4 理由その3への反論理由





The main point made in the passage is that~

However, the professor claims that~



First, the author states in the passage that~

On the other hand, the professor argues in his lecture that~

This point is in direct contradiction to what is indicated in the reading passage.



Second, the reading passage says that~

Yet, the lecturer takes the position that ~, and this is an important point that the author of the reading passage did not predict.



Third, the reading passage states that~.

By contrast, the professor mentions in his lecture that~

This is yet another point of how the professor and the reading passage contradict one another.



Therefore, in the lecture, the professor casts doubt on the points made in the reading passage.


テンプレートを使う時のポイントはリーディングよりもレクチャーの方を多く書くことです。例題のお題にも “Summarize the points made in the lecture” と書いてあります。そのため、できるだけレクチャーの内容のほうにボリュームを持たせるようにしてください。


2. リーディングとリスニングのポイント

リーディングで時間が足りなくなってしまう場合は各パラグラフの最初の文だけを読んで3つの理由を把握することがおすすめです。一般的に英語ではパラグラフの最初の分がトピックセンテンスになりやすいといわれていますが、TOEFLのライティングのIntegrated Taskではその傾向が非常に強いので、最初の分だけでもそれぞれの理由がどういうことなのか把握することができます。




Independent Task

Independent Task では30分間であるお題に対して自分の意見を書くことが求められます。基本的には300ワード以上書くことが望ましいとされています。お題は以下のような感じです。



Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

A teacher’s ability to relate well with students is more important than excellent knowledge of the subject being taught. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


基本的にIndependent Taskではこのような賛成・反対や、どちらがより良いかについて書くことが求められます。そうしたお題に対しては以下のような対策が有効です。


1. 文章の構成を学ぶ











2. 自分が使える表現を増やす





また、サンプルエッセイを見て表現方法を盗むのも効果的です。たとえばBarron’sの Writing for the TOEFL iBT にはいろいろなサンプルエッセイが載っています。また、わざわざお金を出さなくてもインターネット上にもサンプルエッセイがあるので参考にしてみてください。



そもそもの英文法に苦手意識がある方は、急がば回れで英文法の復習から勉強するべきです。おすすめは関正生氏の「世界一わかりやすい英文法の授業」です。初回のブログでも紹介しましたが、この本は a と the の 違いや可算・不可算名詞の違い、前置詞の使い分けなどもわかりやすく説明しているのでおすすめです。



3. どうしてもアイデアが思いつかない時の対処法

Independent Taskで自分の意見を書く際には、主張とそれをサポートする理由が必要になってきます。しかし、どうしても理由の部分が思い付かないということも実際の試験では起こりえます。そうしたときの緊急の対処法としてはスピーキングの前編でも紹介しましたが、以下のやり方で無理やり理由を作りあげてください。


  • 自分の経験として書く
  • 本で~と読んだという感じで書く











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